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Investing in Infrastructure could Create More than a Million Jobs, says TUC
June 26, 2020
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Fast tracking spend on projects such as broadband networks, green technology, transport and housing could create 1.2 million jobs by 2022, according to a new report by the Trade Union Congress (TUC).

The report said investing in these key projects, which would cost the Treasury £85bn, would pay for itself by creating jobs across the economy and boosting growth and tax receipts. 

It called for a new ‘economic consensus’ on building out of the recession and doing everything possible to avoid the damage of mass unemployment post-coronavirus.

Projects suggested within the report included expanding and upgrading the rail network, which it predicted would create 120,000 new jobs, plus building new social housing and retrofitting existing social housing, creating a further 500,000 jobs. 

TUC warned the UK could “lose no time” in coming up with a rescue plan given there is less than a month until the government’s emergency budget. 

The union also warned ministers to create urgent support packages for the sectors of the economy worse hit by the coronavirus crisis, such as hospitality and recruitment, to avoid redundancies as the Job Retention Scheme is wound down. 

It suggested partial buyouts of struggling firms up to 30%, following the example of other countries. 

This would come with guarantees from companies to introduce fair pay plans, rein in executive pay, improve corporate governance structures and pay their fair share of tax. 

“The more people we can keep in work, the faster we’ll bounce back from this crisis. We should lose no time getting shovels in the ground,” said Frances O’Grady, TUC general secretary. 

“We need to work our way out of recession. Investing in infrastructure now will help to create jobs across the economy and limit the fallout from coronavirus. And it will stop the devastation of mass unemployment.”

Young people were picked out as those needing urgent support given those aged 25 and under are three times more likely to work in the sectors at greatest risk such as accommodation and food, arts, entertainment and recreation. 

The TUC therefore called on government to set up a national recovery council with unions and employers and introduce a fully fund jobs guarantee programmes that offers paid jobs with training for young people.

It also recommended boosting social security support for those who lose their jobs and setting up sectoral working groups with unions and business groups to draw up road maps for specific industries. 

This, the TUC said, would make sure the crisis didn’t widen existing labour market inequalities.

Adult Social Care Recruitment Care Campaign Launched
April 24, 2020
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A new national adult social care recruitment campaign has been launched to boost the adult social care workforce in England as part of a wider plan to attract more staff into the sector.

A man and his carer opening a kitchen cupboard
  • A new campaign ‘Care for others. Make a difference’ has been launched to support the aim to attract thousands more people into social care sector
  • Highlights the vital role of the social care workforce during the pandemic, along with the longer-term opportunity of working in care
  • Rapid training and work programme will be set up

The campaign, titled ‘Care for Others. Make a Difference’, will look to inspire the public to consider a career in social care.

To help fill the recruitment gap, the Health and Social Care Secretary Matt Hancock and Care Minister Helen Whately launch the campaign to encourage the right people with the right values and attributes to consider a paid career in adult social care work.

The campaign includes the new CARE brand for social care which symbolises the entire care profession – like the iconic and recognisable NHS logo. The brand aims to raise the profile of the care sector and allow businesses to show them the same appreciation as NHS workers.

Free-to-access e-learning courses and webinars for local authority and care provider staff are also being developed on how to maintain good care in the midst of the coronavirus crisis. Key topics will include: safeguarding, person-centred care, dementia, Mental Capacity Act, infection control and supporting care at home to reduce pressure on the NHS. 

Skills for Care CEO Oonagh Smyth said:

We know that significant numbers of social care staff are unable to work so realising this ambition of recruiting thousands of people to where they are needed by providers right across the country is absolutely vital.

Some of our network of endorsed training providers have secured funding to deliver learning for new staff so they have the skills and knowledge needed to make a real difference in the lives of the people they will be working with and in their communities.

Chris Hyams, CEO at global job site Indeed, commented: 

Looking for work in the current job market can feel challenging. Indeed’s mission is to help people get jobs, and today we are proud to form a partnership with DHSC to help jobseekers find key roles on the frontlines in social care. Making a leap into another sector may feel daunting but now is a great time to consider new fields. To those ready to work and make a difference, Indeed is here to help.

Currently, 1.49 million people work in adult social care, but the coronavirus outbreak has put additional pressure on the vital work already being provided by the sector.

The most important qualities needed in care workers are an ability to treat others with respect, listen to their needs, understand their emotions and be warm, kind and honest. A good standard of English, numeracy and digital skills, attention to detail and the ability to work as part of a team is also important.

The Department of Health and Social Care has been working with both care providers and recruitment agencies and is calling for all relevant organisations to ensure vacancies are advertised or listed on www.everydayisdifferent.com.

Many job boards, including Indeed, Monster, Reed, Totaljobs Group and TARGETJobs are offering support to help fill these vacancies. This ranges from free job listings to free advertising.

Last week the government published its adult social care action plan. The plan outlined activity to attract previously registered social workers in England, occupational therapists and nurses to return to the sector to support the frontline effort.

Over 7,000 retired nurses have responded to a call to return to employment, some of whom will be deployed to care settings.

Former social workers who have left the profession have also been invited back to return to employment – with the aim that 8,000 social workers could be supported to return to work if they wish to. Over a thousand individuals have already expressed an interest in returning to social care during the outbreak.

The government’s adult social care action plan, published last week, sets out how we are protecting workers by ramping up testing across the system for care workers and their families. We’re ensuring millions of additional personal protective equipment (PPE) items reach those on the frontline with local resilience forums identifying those most in need of more.

The Secretary of State has written to local authorities outlining how the £1.6 billion funding for local authorities should support adult social care providers and workers. To ensure this additional funding is making a difference, we are asking local authorities to provide information about the distribution of this funding to providers.

Background information
  • Campaign imagery and film content can be downloaded from Dropbox
  • We work with a range of organisations in an in-kind capacity, to help people recognise what a great career option adult social care can be so that we can recruit staff with the right values and skills. We are always open to working with other organisations who:
    • are connected to the social care industry – for example, are a care provider, recruiter or advertiser of social care vacancies or a career advice service
    • can reach our target audience of 20 to 39 year olds using a range of channels
    • please contact everydayisdifferent@dhsc.gov.uk for more information.
New Analysis of the Impact of Lockdown on UK Jobs
April 20, 2020
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Estimates produced by the Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER) at the University of Essex suggest the lockdown can take more than 6.5m jobs out of the economy -around a quarter of the total.

The study led by Professor Matteo Richiardi with ISER researcher Diego Collado uses ONS data to predict job losses by sector.

Using the most updated Input-Output tables provided by the ONS (2016), we have quantified the overall effects on the UK economy of different lockdown scenarios. In more detail, following a similar reasoning to Keogh-Brown et al. (2010) and Dorn et al. (2020), we have assumed the lockdown implies some reduction in the final demand of goods and services (this includes demand from households and government, as well as investments and exports), plus constraints on the supply side, for instance due to reduced productivity of working from home. We have then worked out how this reduction is passed on to the intermediate demand – the productive engine of the country. 

Our baseline scenario predicts an overall contraction in GDP and employment of around 20%, including direct and indirect effects.

As Figure 1 shows, the most badly affected sector is Accommodation & Food Services (-75%), followed by Services and retail (almost halved), and transport (-44%). To be noted, some of the assumptions about the reduction in final demand in these sector are more drastic, but intermediate demand required by other sectors partly offsets this change. Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing loses one job in 10, mainly due to reduced demand by the Accommodation & Food Services sector. Mining, Energy and Water Supply, Real Estate Activities (mostly composed of rents), together with Public Administration and Techical Activities are barely affected, while the Health sector sees a significant increase in overall production and employment (+27%). 

Figure 2 reports the scenario assumptions and the estimated effects on production and employment, by sector of activity.

Our next step will be to evaluate the impact of the macroeconomic consequences of the lockdown on household disposable income, inequality and poverty, and quantify the cost of the rescue package put forward by the Government.

Figure 1: Estimated effects of lockdown on employment, by industry (%). 

Figure 2: Estimated effects of lockdown on employment, by industry (absolute numbers). 

References

  • Florian Dorn, Clemens Fuest, Marcell Göttert, Carla Krolage, Stefan Lautenbacher, Sebastian Link, Andreas Peichl, Magnus Reif, Stefan Sauer, Marc Stöckli, Klaus Wohlrabe, Timo Wollmershäuser (2020). The Economic Costs of the Coronavirus Shutdown for Germany: A Scenario Calculation. EconPol Policy Brief 3(21).
  • Marcus R. Keogh-Brown, Simon Wren-Lewis, W. John Edmunds, Philippe Beutels, and Richard D. Smith (2010). The Possible Macroeconomic Impact on the UK of an Influenza Pandemic. Health Economics 19: 1345–1360.  
Permanent Roles in UK Job Market Down by 50%
April 14, 2020
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Perhaps not surprisingly, permanent roles in the UK job market were down by around 50% in the last week of March compared with the same week last year.

That’s according to the Recruitment Trends Snapshot report for the Association of Professional Staffing Companies (APSCo). 

Analysing daily hiring activity throughout March, the data found contract vacancies were down by 40% and interviews down by just over 50%.

On a monthly basis, permanent roles were down by almost 20% compared to February and contract figures were down almost 12%. 

Yet APSCo said the data, in particular relating to job interviews, demonstrated that hiring managers are now using technology to ensure some job interviews are taking place. 

Ann Swain, CEO of APSCo, said: “While many firms have slowed down hiring, they have not yet pressed stop and we are hearing from members that although this is undoubtedly a really tough period, there is definitely hiring still going on. 

“There are obvious sectors such as life sciences, technology, healthcare and logistics registering live roles but also our members have reported activity in areas such as finance, HR and digital marketing.”

Yet with many companies announcing cuts to their budgets, it is inevitable that unemployment rates will rise. 

Wizz Air has been the latest firm to announce its plans to cut 1,000 jobs, equalling a fifth of its workforce.

Hospitality is one of the worst hit sectors, with 40% of listings equalling 25,000 advertised vacancies having been wiped out, according to job site Adzuna.

Confused about the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme or what being on Furlough means?
April 3, 2020
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By Kate Palmer, Associate Director of Advisory at Peninsula

@Kate1Palmer @peninsula_uk shares some advice on the #Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme and what being on #Furlough means.

Recently, Chancellor Rishi Sunak announced a package of support to help employers survive the coronavirus lockdown and continue to pay their staff. The Chancellor said any employer in the UK would be eligible for the coronavirus job retention scheme and that Government grants will cover 80% of the salary of furloughed workers up to a total of £2,500 a month.

But what does it mean to be furloughed? Kate Palmer, Associate Director of Advisory at global employment law consultancy, Peninsula, explains below.

What is the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme?

The Government has announced its plans for financial assistance to help employers retain employees during the coronavirus outbreak, although offering no work, and avoid lay-offs. It is called the Job Retention Scheme. Under the scheme, employers place their employees on ‘furlough’ This isn’t a term we use in UK employment law, and it seems to originate in the USA. It essentially means putting employees on a temporary leave of absence where they do no work, but they are retained on company books to be brought back in when needed.

The guidance sets out that organisations will need to designate which of their workforce will be furloughed employees and then submit that information to HMRC, along with each employee’s earnings.

Information will be able to be submitted through an online portal. Employers who furlough staff will be able to obtain a grant from the Government to cover 80% of furloughed employees’ wages, to a maximum of £2,500 per employee per month. Chancellor Rishi Sunak has stated he hopes the first grants will be paid by the end of April 2020, and they will be backdated to 1 March 2020. The scheme is initially intended to run for three months but may be extended.

Who is covered by the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme?

All businesses can access the scheme, whether the virus has severely impacted the company or not. This is true regardless of the size of the business and the sector it operates within. Workers must have been on the organisation’s PAYE from at least 28 February 2020 to benefit from the grant. However, all workers in this position are eligible, including those on zero-hour or temporary contracts.  Workers who were made redundant prior after 28 February can be re-employed and placed on furlough instead. The grant will still cover their wages for this period.

What is the process for furloughing?

The guidance states that the ability to furlough an employee depends on their contract. It is not likely that employee contracts will include a specific right to use furlough. However, contracts may contain a right to lay off employees on no pay already so are expected to make the discussions around furlough a little smoother.

In any case, even when there is a right to lay off, it is still advisable to gain the employee’s agreement to furlough to avoid any confusion in the future. When faced with potential redundancies, a period of leave with 80% pay may seem an attractive option to employees. If an employer has already taken the step to utilise lay off, they can get in touch with those employees and agree to change their current status from lay off to furlough. They still wouldn’t be provided with any work, but their pay arrangements would be changed from nothing, or the payment of statutory guarantee pay, to 80% wages.

Workers should not undertake any work for the organisation while on furlough that amounts to making money for it or providing services to it. If workers are asked to undertake training while on furlough, they should be paid in line with the national minimum wage even if this is above the 80%.

Can I force an employee to be furloughed?

Employers need to designate employees as furloughed, which means it is their choice. However, if businesses are not placing everyone on furlough, they should consider carefully who it should be and whose skills will continue to be in demand through this challenging period. While it may be assumed that the best thing to do is furlough those employees labelled as high risk by the Government, forcing them on to furlough without their input, and therefore forcing them on to 80% wages, may result in discrimination claims from those who allege they were made to do it because of their age, disability or pregnancy.

Where employees need to be selected for furlough, it may be best to ask for volunteers across the workforce. If any high-risk employees, who had previously been risk assessed as fine to still be in work, put themselves forward, it may well be appropriate to choose them first.  There does not appear to be a maximum or minimum number of employees who can be furloughed

Kate Palmer, Associate Director of Advisory at Peninsula

Over-50s Could Solve Hospitality Worker Shortages
March 18, 2020
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The hospitality sector’s labour shortage could be solved by midlife workers’ interest in the industry, according to research.

In a study from Caterer.com so-called ‘boomerangs’ (people who leave a job but return to the same workplace later on) could help plug the sector’s labour shortage while also meeting consumer demand for workers aged over 50.

A reported 2.5 million people aged 50 and older are interested in moving to the hospitality industry, while almost half of the population (45%) said they’ve worked in the sector at some point in their lives. 

The demographic presents a substantial talent pool for hospitality employers, as almost a third (30%) of workers over 50 are looking for a career change. When considering their options hospitality was the most popular choice among over-50s for a career move.

The research cited flexible shift patterns, strong social engagement and positive workplace culture among the top reasons hospitality was such a popular industry for workers over 50.

Almost half (48%) of people said working in the sector is also a great way to keep active as they age, and a further quarter (25%) of workers over 50 said the salary and tips available in hospitality jobs are appealing.

Patrick Thomson, a senior programme manager at the Centre for Ageing Better, said: “With fewer young people entering the workforce and over-50s currently making up nearly a third of all workers, it’s clear that older workers are not just the workforce of the future but of today.

“With many employers worried about skill shortages in the wake of new immigration plans it’s vital that employers in industries like hospitality are able to make the most of the talent and experience the over-50s can bring to the workplace.”

The wider public is also supportive of over-50s working in the hospitality sector. 

One in four (25%) survey respondents said they would trust hospitality workers aged over 50 to take their order and payment more than their younger counterparts, while 38% would be more comfortable if a hospitality worker over 50 handled their complaint or assisted in a crisis.

Thomson suggested there is plenty employers can do to ensure they aren’t missing the benefits of an older workforce. 

“Hiring age-positively can bring in a diverse workforce – this includes advertising in a way that attracts the widest pool of candidates. 

“Flexible working is crucial to supporting those with health needs or caring responsibilities to stay in work. And making training and progression available to employees at all ages is good for retention, making workers feel valued in the workplace,” he added. 

Two-thousand nationally-representative UK adults were surveyed by between 28 to 31 January 2020. Also surveyed were 2,251 hospitality employees on 5 February 2020.

Entry-Level Job Recruitment Predicted to Stagnate in 2020
January 13, 2020
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The Institute of Student Employers (ISE)’s Pulse Survey found that 2020 has the worst predicted growth rate for graduate recruitment since 2016.

Employers are reportedly planning to increase their graduate vacancies by only 3% this year, compared to the predicted 18% growth of graduate recruitment numbers in 2019.

Seventy-four per cent of employers reported that it was no easier or more difficult to find graduate jobs than in previous years. 

One respondent in the energy, engineering and industry sector highlighted the challenges associated with students reneging on job offers. They said:

“Graduates are quite open about the fact that they will accept a number of offers and make up their minds at the end of the recruitment season. We do not have difficulty in finding quality graduates – if we don’t fill all our vacancies it is because of late withdrawals.”

However, charity and public sector graduate vacancies have increased by 14%, which the ISE said is preventing the labour market from shrinking. If the charity and public sector roles were to be removed from the figures the graduate market would be stagnant this year.

The ISE’s research also found that employers are increasing vacancies for apprenticeships and school leaver programmes by just 2%.

In 2019 employers reported an increase of 7%, which the ISE said demonstrated that the growth of non-graduate numbers stimulated by the apprenticeship levy is peaking.

Stephen Isherwood, the ISE’s chief executive, said:

“The graduate jobs market is an early indicator of the health of the economy as employers tend to plan further ahead when deciding their graduate recruitment needs. What we’re seeing now is particularly concerning as employers are normally over-optimistic at this time of the year. As we move through the recruitment season they typically recruit less than they had anticipated.

“Outside the public sector the market is not looking particularly healthy. The government needs to get the economy moving otherwise this year we’ll be in for a stagnant graduate labour market at best. If the government want to see further growth in the apprentice market it needs to address employer concerns about how the apprenticeship levy works,” added Isherwood.

The survey ran for three weeks during December and received 296 responses.

By HR Magazine News: Emma Greedy

Saturday Jobs Dying as Teen Employment Halves, Resolution Foundation Says
January 8, 2020
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The number of working teenagers has almost halved in the last 20 years, a study suggests, sparking fears of the “death of the Saturday job”. 

A Resolution Foundation report suggests a quarter of 16 and 17-year-olds were in work between 2017 and 2019 – falling from 48% in 1997-99.

Young people were instead prioritising studies over part-time work, it added.

The think tank says the number of people who have never worked increased by 52% over the last 20 years.

The report says 8.2% of people aged 16-64 – some 3.4 million people in total – had never had a paid job. That is a 52% increase since 1998 when 5.4% had never worked, the report added.

The figures come despite UK unemployment falling to its lowest level since 1975 in the three months to October 2019.

‘Workshy Brits’

Laura Gardiner, from the Resolution Foundation, said: “The rising number of people who have never had a paid job has been driven by the death of the teenage Saturday job and a wider turn away from earning while learning.”

There had also been a sharp fall in the employment rate of students in further and higher education. while people were taking longer to find a job after leaving full-time education, the report found.

“With young people today expected to end their working lives at a later age than previous generations, it’s understandable that they want to start their working lives at a later age too,” Ms Gardiner added.

“But this lack of work experience can create longer-term problems, particularly if they hit other life milestones like motherhood or ill-health before their careers have got off the ground.”

Both household worklessness and economic inactivity are at record lows, the study said. Meanwhile, out-of-work benefits have become less generous in recent decades, it added.

“Lazy interpretations related to workshy Brits are very far wide of the mark,” the report added.

“Instead, the rise in the proportion of working-age adults who have never had a paid job is above all a story about the complex choices many young people are facing in trying to get the most out of their education.”

Ms Gardiner added: “More and more of us are now working, with employment hitting record highs and worklessness hitting record lows, but despite this, around one in 12 working-age adults have never worked a day in their lives – a 50% increase since the late 1990s.”

Workers Holding Multiple Temporary Roles
December 18, 2019
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​More than one in 10 (12%) workers in the UK have multiple jobs and consider temporary work as their main role, according to research from Reed

The research, carried out as part of Reed’s ‘Temporary isn’t Temporary’ campaign, surveyed 5,000 workers and looked at their experiences of temporary and multiple-career roles.

When asked about the positive benefits of temporary or short-term contracts, more than a third (37%) cited work/life balance as the key reason they have followed this career structure. 

Access to a variety of work was the next-favoured reason at 34%, while 28% cited that a flexible and varied approach to gaining work experience would help boost their CV. Twenty-two per cent said seeing their family was a major benefit of temporary working. 

However, the research also found a variety of reasons some people are being deterred from temporary work. More than half (53%) of workers said they prefer the security of a permanent role, and 46% said the benefits of a permanent role (such as pensions and sick pay) are important in their preference for longer-term roles. 

Despite income and financial security being of great concern, two-thirds (66%) of workers indicated that they were not worried about the disadvantages of non-permanent work when applying for mortgages or loans. And more than three-quarters (77%) said they weren’t concerned about having to work whenever possible. 

The research also highlighted discrepancies in the views held by different demographics. 

Across the UK, multiple temporary contract roles seem to be favoured by men, with 21% viewing the increased hourly rate as an advantage compared to 17% of women. 

Temporary work appears to be favoured by the next generation and those at the beginning of their careers with 17% of 25- to 34-year-olds considering temporary employment to be their main role. More than a fifth (21%) of 25- to 34-year-olds hold more than one temporary role and 11% hold more than four temporary roles at one time. 

Claire Harvey, managing director of Reed UK & Ireland, said the research reveals that financial concerns can dissuade people from wanting to take up temporary work. 

“Having surveyed workers across the UK we know they want the flexibility of temporary work but are held back by financial concerns,” she said.

“When this barrier is removed there is little stopping workers from chasing their flexible working dream. And the good news is that a market with a healthy amount of temporary work can benefit both employers and employees.” 

Harvey added that employers can benefit from making sure temporary workers are given high-quality and varied work. 

“If employers can deliver the variety and quality of work at the same time as keeping the important flexibility in a role that candidate’s desire then they will capture the best temporary workers,” she said. 

“When they may not be able to employ a highly-skilled specialist on a permanent basis a client can benefit from their wisdom through a short-term contract. 

“With the progression of technology in the workplace it’s clear that the traditional nine to five is disappearing and, as a result, temporary or contract working is likely to become more and more common.”

UK Employers ‘Pause’ Job Hiring as Demand Falls to Seven-Year Low
December 13, 2019
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Employers in Britain have “hit the pause button” on job hiring, according to a survey of the labour market that shows demand for new workers has tumbled to a seven-year low. ManpowerGroup said years of strong jobs growth had ended in 2019 as Brexit uncertainty and a slowdown in global trade took their toll on business confidence.

The recruitment firm’s survey of 2,101 employers found the outlook for the first quarter of 2020 was weak with hiring intentions by firms in London at a 10-year low.

A balance of companies, when asked whether they intended to hire additional workers or reduce the size of their workforce in the coming quarter, registered +2%, the lowest figure since 2012.

London, which has among the largest number of employers and usually offsets poor figures from the UK’s regions, was among the worst affected after hiring intentions dropped five percentage points from the fourth quarter to -1 for the first three months of 2020.

However, the east Midlands, described by the survey as a “bastion of positivity for many years”, fared even worse: employer hiring confidence fell 15 percentage points to -2%, its lowest level in more than a decade. Wales dropped to -1%, Yorkshire and the Humber hit -1% and the north-east declined to -4%.

ManpowerGroup said the normally buoyant market for workers in London’s financial sector began to dry up in the summer and had contracted ever since, particularly among accountancy and law firms that once aggressively recruited staff.

The report, which is used as a key economic indicator by the Bank of England and the Treasury, says: “Declining levels of confidence in almost every sector and region paints a sluggish picture for the start of 2020, with only a few bright spots.”

Official surveys have found that hiring has stalled and wage growth has begun to decline as firms said they were preparing for the threat of a no-deal Brexit and a slowdown in trade amid the US-China dispute over import tariffs.

The Office for National Statistics said in a report covering the three months to September that employment had fallen by 58,000 – the biggest drop since May 2015.

Chris Gray, the director of ManpowerGroup’s UK division, said: “Employers are hitting the pause button after many years of strong hiring. Signs of a slowing global economy, a general election and a lack of clarity about Brexit are weighing heavily on the minds of employers leading to many hiring plans being put on ice.

“Employers want certainty before they can make investment decisions and firm up hiring plans.”

Gray said employers continued to complain about skills shortages among engineers, IT staff, trades people, customer service representatives and medical professionals, with “little sign of them easing in the foreseeable future”.

A better than expected increase in hiring intentions across the West Midlands followed a resurgence in manufacturing and broader growth across the main cities around Birmingham.

The balance of firms reporting improved confidence increased by two percentage points to +13%. Manpower said while some sectors of the car industry were struggling, there was an increase in investment across the aerospace, trains, defence and shipping components supply sectors.

“We’re seeing an increase in investment in skills in the automotive sector and its supply chain focused particularly on electric vehicles and new technologies,” Gray said.

“One factor here is the ‘Greta Thunberg effect’, which is speeding up the demand for electric cars. The challenge will be filling the gaps – many employers are reporting difficulties finding skilled staff, and wage inflation is also driving up costs.”