Connecting with Customers in Times of Crisis

During the COVID-19 pandemic, companies that lead with empathy and genuinely address customer needs can strengthen relationships.

by Fabricio Dore, Oliver Ehrlich, David Malfara, and Kelly Ungerman

How to Define Customer Service Standards

Setting out the standards of service your customers can expect from your organisation is vital – not only for your customers, but for your employees too. 

Service standards are usually defined in terms of:

  • timeliness
  • accuracy
  • appropriateness

‘Delivery in three days’ or ‘calls answered in 20 seconds’ are phrases that give the essence of a service standard that involves a timeline.

These statements need to be defined precisely before they can be considered as true service standards. ‘When does the clock start?’, ‘Are we expecting 100% success in the timeframe?’, ‘Is measurement based on working days or calendar days?’, ‘Does this apply to all locations worldwide?’ and ‘Does this apply 24 hours/day, 7 days/week?’ are some of the questions that have to be asked in the process of defining the standard.

So an initial definition of ‘answer the phone within three rings’ may be implemented as ‘Between 8am and 6pm on workdays, 95% of calls will be answered by a human in 15 seconds and 100% in 40 seconds’.

Similarly, an initial definition of ‘delivery within two days’ could become ‘For addresses in the UK mainland, parcels will be delivered two working days after receipt of the order’.

Accuracy: Customers expect accurate information and accurate deliveries – only 100% is acceptable as a standard under this heading. ‘We got most of your order right’ is a response that is not appreciated by a customer.

Examples of service standards reflecting the accuracy of a service are ‘the information quoted in a telephone conversation is 100% accurate’ or ‘the parcel received by the customer contained all the goods ordered by the customer’.

Appropriateness: How often do you hear the exclamation ‘they didn’t answer the question!’ It happens often when politicians are being interviewed on TV but it shouldn’t happen in the commercial world. Appropriateness is about ensuring that the customers’ expectations have been met, particularly in an enquiry situation.

An Example: A customer writes to an organisation with a three-part enquiry. The customer receives a response that is on time, totally correct in what it says – but fails to address one of the three topics in the original enquiry. Such a response would fail the appropriateness standard – again based on a 100% expectation.

‘100% of the customer’s questions were addressed’ would be a good starting point for such a standard.

How do You Create a Set of Service Standards?

There are at least seven potential sources of information to help define the service standards for an organisation:

  • management
  • employees
  • existing customers
  • potential customers
  • lost or former customers
  • competitors
  • regulatory authorities

You should seek information from different levels of management. However, do not rely solely on management input – existing customers are a better source.

Employees: This group is too often overlooked – ‘what do they know?’ is a view that has been expressed. In fact, employees interact with customers every day, so they are a really valuable source of information and will expect to contribute to the process.

Lost or Former Customers: Why did these customers not return? They will probably be pleased to tell you.

Potential Customers: What can you learn from people who are choosing an alternative supplier? The sales team may give you some input but there is no substitute for direct input from prospects.

Competitive Information: Mystery shopping and monitoring competitors’ web sites and literature can reveal useful input.

Regulatory Authorities: The activities of some types of business are governed by a regulator who sets service standards that must be used.

How Many Standards Should We Have?

You should have standards that are appropriate to the size, diversity and complexity of the business.

Initially, we suggest that you establish a small number of service standards that focus on the absolutely critical areas of your business.

You will need a period of time for colleagues to ‘buy–in’ to the concept of service standards, the monitoring arrangements and the benefits of implementing an effective programme.

Once they have become a way of life, consider expanding the range of measures on a ‘need to have not nice to have’ basis.

You should only have service standards that can be monitored accurately and with an appropriate degree of effort.

Planning the Implementation

Having defined the ideal set of standards, management is then faced with the challenge of working out how to measure performance against the standard.

The standard is of no use if performance against it cannot be measured. Technology often has a role to play in monitoring performance against timeliness standards – particularly in–coming telephone calls.

Correspondence management systems also help monitor the timely answering of written communications. Use of technology as part of the process may allow performance results to be based on 100% of all transactions, rather than on a sample.

Feedback forms or follow-up calls/questionnaires can be used to check customer feedback. It is important to get expert advice on sampling.

At this stage, all ambiguity must be eliminated from the wording of standards so that the whole organisation understands the measure.

Suppose that ‘95% of calls to be answered in three rings’ is a draft standard. It leads to the following questions:

  • what happens to the other 5% of calls?
  • do we care how long the customer has to wait?
  • do we mean answered by a computerised voice or by a real human being?
  • does the standard apply 24 hours/day, 7 days/week?

Development of the final wording and the associated data gathering process is likely to require a couple of iterations. Some compromises may be required as the cost of data collection is balanced against the ideal service definition.

Accuracy and responsiveness standards are more challenging to monitor. Listening to calls, speaking to customers and independent assessment of written/ email communications against the original enquiry on a sample basis usually provide reliable results.

Statisticians should be asked to give advice on sample sizes and data gathering techniques.

Implementation of Service Standards

Ownership, visibility and commitment are the key words.

Ownership: It starts at the top. The chief executive and top management team must be sponsors and champions. They must ‘walk the talk’, own the communication process and ensure initial and on–going focus on standards in every employee briefing.

Each service standard must have a management owner, who is accountable for the delivery of the service. Performance against standard will normally be a feature of that individual’s annual review.

The management owner will also have the authority to implement process and other changes to improve operational performance. But there is no copyright on ideas, so all colleagues should be encouraged to make suggestions for performance improvement.

Visibility: ‘How well are we doing?’ should be a question that employees don’t have to ask. Customer service standards and the current performance against those standards should be communicated to all employees on a timely basis.

Notice boards, memos, email, team briefings, newsletters and the organisation’s intranet are appropriate methods.

Employees really appreciate the opportunity for discussion. Employees who are based out of the office are frequently overlooked, so they should get special consideration.

Commitment: The mission or values of an organisation are a good place to anchor the commitment to customer service.

The chief executive, all levels of management and all employees must be committed to delivering the promise to customers regardless of external or internal influences. It’s not easy but remember: service is your best salesman.

How are Service Standards Used?

The main use of service standards is as a tool to confirm to management that customers are receiving what they have been promised.

Sales and marketing colleagues will want to take the operational standards and develop them into the sales pitch for the organisation.

While the enthusiasm is to be applauded, this approach should be resisted until consistent performance has been achieved and sustained.

Service standards, and performance against those standards, should be reviewed regularly with employees. It is important that they know how the organisation is performing.

Discussions about service standards can often generate ideas for process improvement to further enhance service delivery.

Review of Service Standards

Business economics, external factors and changes in the market place all have an influence on service standards. Just as these factors change, so should an organisation regularly review its service standards, probably every 12–18 months.

Tips For Successfully Managing Online Customer Reviews

Customer opinions have always had the potential to influence other people’s attitudes towards a business. In the past, these opinions were communicated mostly by word of mouth. But the internet has given customer opinions mass exposure. 

Track Reviews: To manage online reviews of your business, you need to know when and where they appear. Luckily, free services exist that will track and report them for you.

Many review sites (e.g. Yelp, Product Review, TripAdvisor) can send a notification each time you’re reviewed, provided you ‘join’ the site. If you want to search more broadly, Google Alerts [] will report mentions of your business (or any other term that you request) in web pages, blogs, videos and discussions. Twitter Search [] allows you to search Twitter for any term.

You can also pay for more sophisticated ‘reputation monitoring’. If you’re interested in doing this, seek the advice of a social media consultant.

Claim Or Create Your Business Page: Sites such as Yelp, Zomato and Google Places use publicly available data (e.g. from the telephone directory) to generate a page for your business. Some sites do this only when you’re reviewed, but others do it automatically to provide complete search listings for users.

Claiming your page is free, and you then have control over what it contains. Or, if a page hasn’t been created, you can create one yourself. To claim or create a page, visit the site concerned and look for a button or link that says something like ‘For business’, ‘Claim your page’ or ‘Unlock your page’.

Claiming your page may improve your listing in search rankings, and will often give you access to special services provided by the review site (e.g. tools to track and analyse reviews, and the option of communicating privately with reviewers).

Decide Who Handles Reviews: Each business must decide who will monitor and respond to customer reviews. Many sites allow only one management response per review, and you also want to control the quality of your responses (e.g. you don’t want a junior waiter insulting a customer who has complained about the waiter’s serving skills!)

The staff member who handles online reviews needs to have:

  • a strong customer service attitude
  • a friendly writing style
  • the authority to resolve complaints
  • good judgement about when to refer a review to more senior staff.

Respond To Positive Reviews: Most marketers suggest responding to positive reviews so customers know that you appreciate their compliments. Some recommend sending a private message that only the customer will see, while others suggest responding publicly (if you’re responding to ‘reviews’ on forums such as Facebook and Twitter, you may have no choice but to respond publicly). You may also have to decide if you answer every positive review or just the ones that stand out.

Most experts say not to offer tangible rewards (e.g. gift vouchers) to reviewers, because this can be construed as a bribe for future positive comments. Nor should you annoy reviewers by targeting them with advertising or asking them to join your mailing list. It’s best to simply introduce yourself and say thank you. 

If some other aspect of your business might be of particular interest to them, it’s probably fine to mention that too (e.g. if a customer praises a particular brand of stereo, you could let them know that you’ll be expanding that range next month). Use your judgement on a case-by-case basis.

Follow Each Sites’ Rules: Most review sites stipulate that reviews and responses must not contain personal attacks, profanity, breaches of privacy, advertising, or criticisms of the site itself (e.g. you can’t say that a site is unfair, even if you believe it is). Other sites (e.g. TripAdvisor) go further and say that all material must be ‘family-friendly’.

Whichever site you want to join, read their rules carefully. There’s no point writing a response that breaks the site’s rules because it won’t be published anyway. In the case of personal blogs, there may be no official rules, but it’s best to follow the rules that the bigger sites use even if the blogger themself appears not to.

Don’t Post Fake Reviews: It’s unethical and a breach of site rules to post positive reviews about your own business or negative reviews about your competitors. This applies to business owners but also to staff and to any family or friends who are not genuine customers. Posting fake reviews may also be illegal. In some countries, business owners are using lawyers to challenge what they believe are false and defamatory negative reviews. Larger review sites filter any reviews that they believe are false.

Encourage Positive Reviews: One of the best ways to get online reviews working for you is to encourage happy customers to post positive reviews. But take care how you do this so that it doesn’t backfire.


  • display the logos of the review sites in your store and on your website
  • provide comment cards in store that include the logos and web addresses of review sites (customers can either drop the card in your suggestion box, or take it away and post their comment on line)
  • embed a ‘Review us now’ button on your website that takes customers to the review site
  • regularly give customers new reasons to review your business (e.g. introduce new offers, products and incentives)
  • consider asking especially satisfied customers to post a review (e.g. the customer who sent
  • you a postcard saying that your whitewater rafting trip was the highlight of their holiday)
  • aim to add a few new reviews each month.


  • send an email to your entire customer list asking them to post a positive review a wave of positive reviews posted simultaneously will either be filtered out as fake or regraded with great suspicion by readers
  • offer incentives to ‘bribe’ customers to review you their reviews are likely to sound forced and to be filtered out or ignored by readers. Plus you won’t really learn what your customers think.